In How Breakthroughs Happen, Andrew Hargadon explains why so few companies actually innovate. Innovative companies have smart people, like everyone else, but they also have broad experience beyond one industry. So they can apply techiques already employed in one industry to solve a problem in another industry. Their minds are open to the possibility that a squirt gun reduced in size and filled with saline can become a medical device for clearing a wound; an inflatable pillow becomes the bladder for an inflatable shoe. The author says "The future is here already but it's unevenly distributed." Companies with a track record of innovation have broad experience in many disciplines rather than deep experience in one discipline.